International Trade

International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. International trade plays an important role in the global economy, as it represents a means to meet the needs of the global market and enhance economic cooperation between countries. International trade contributes to achieving economic benefits for participating countries, such as expanding markets, achieving economic specialization, and enhancing Innovation and technology, improving the standard of living, international trade also faces challenges such as protection…

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Balance of Payments

The balance of payments is a term used in the field of economics to indicate the balance of monetary payments between a particular country and the rest of the world. The balance of payments expresses the total exports and imports of a particular country during a specific period of time, and includes all financial and trade transactions between the country and its international partners. The balance of payments consists of several sections, including: Trade balance (trade balance): It expresses…

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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, also known as OPEC (OPEC), is an international organization that includes a group of oil-producing countries. Founded on September 14, 1960, it is considered one of the most powerful bodies influencing oil prices globally. OPEC is considered an international economic body, and it aims to coordinate and direct the oil production policies of member states with the aim of achieving price stability in the market…

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interest rate

Interest rate refers to the interest rate charged on certain amounts of money borrowed or deposited. This ratio is also called the “prime interest rate” or “prime interest rate.” The interest rate changes depending on its economic context and the monetary institution that sets it. There are several reasons for changing the interest rate:


Production is the process of converting natural resources, labor and capital into goods and services that meet the needs of society. Production includes all the steps necessary to create and manufacture products or provide services, starting with the extraction of raw materials and ending with the distribution of finished products. There are different types of production, including industrial production, which is related to manufacturing goods, and agricultural production, which is related to growing crops...

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Supply and demand for money in global markets

The loanable funds market in any country is linked to the global market through net exports. If a country's net exports are negative, meaning that the value of imports is greater than the country's exports, then all countries in the world provide this country with funds, and the amount of loanable funds is greater than this country's national savings, and vice versa in this case...

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Hot money

Hot money: It is the transfer of money from one country to another with the aim of achieving profit in a short period through the difference in the interest rate and changes in the expected exchange rate. It was given this name because of its entry and exit from and to the markets very quickly, which causes instability in the market. Hot money flows from the country with the same The lowest interest rate in the country is the highest in…

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